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Islamic Republic of Iran

Iran's Geography

Iran is located in the Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf in the south, and the Caspian Sea in the north. It covers an area of 1,648 million square kilometers (636,296 square miles) and is edged between Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, and Armenia. A series of massive, heavily eroded mountain ranges surround Iran's high interior basin. Tehran is the capital of Iran. It is located at the foot of the towering Alborz Mountains to its north, and the Central Desert to its south.

Iran's Climate

Iran's climate ranges from arid or semiarid in its centre and its south to subtropical along the Caspian See and the northern forests. On its northern edge (the Caspian coastal plain) temperatures rarely fall below freezing and the area remains humid for the rest of the year. Summer temperatures rarely exceed 29 °C (84.2 °F). To the west, settlements in the Zagros basin experience lower temperatures, severe winters with below-zero average daily-temperatures and heavy snowfall. The eastern and central basins are arid and have occasional deserts. Average summer temperatures exceed 38 °C (100.4 °F). The coastal plains of the Persian Gulf and Oman See in southern Iran have mild winters and very humid and hot summers. Tehran's climate can be generally described as mild in the spring and autumn, hot and dry in the summer, and cold in the winter. Because the city is large with significant differences in elevation among various districts, the weather is often cooler in the hilly north than in the flat southern part of Tehran.

Iran's Culture

Iran's capital is Tehran and its national language is Persian. Throughout its long history, in spite of different devastating invasions and occupations by Arabs, Turks, Mongols, the British, Russians, among others, Iran has always maintained its national identity and has developed as a distinct political and cultural entity. Iran is well known as a centre of civilization. Persian culture has long been a predominant culture of the region. Persian language has often been dubbed as a most worthy language to serve as a conduit for poetry. Dialects of Persian are sporadically spoken throughout the region from China to Syria and Russia. Iranian art has one of the richest heritages in world history and encompasses many disciplines, including architecture, painting, carpet weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and stonemasonry. Iran has great poets and writers who are well known all over the world. For instance: Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (Rūmī), Khayyam, Hafiz, Saadi, Ferdowsi, and the like. According to the Persian historian and archaeologist, Arthur Pope, the supreme Iranian art, in the proper meaning of the word, has always been its architecture. The supremacy of architecture applies to both pre-and post-Islamic periods. The history of architecture in Iran goes back to 7th millennium BC. This art has been completed by various means, particularly the rituals.

Iran's Tourism Attractions

There are a lot of historic sites and tourist attractions in Iran. Here you get familiar with some of those which have been registered in the UNESCO List of World Human Heritage. Of course, Iran is an ancient country host to plenty of historic sites and tourist attractions for visitors. Some of its most renowned attractions include the Pasargad, Bam Citadel, Soltaniyeh, Taq Bostan (meaning "ark made by stone"), Shushtar Waterfalls, Bistun, Armenian Monastic Ensembles, Meidan-e Emam, Tchogha Zanbil, Persepolis, etc. Tehran, as Iran's showcase and capital city, has a wealth of cultural attractions. Azadi Tower and Milad Tower (sixth tallest tower in the world) have come to symbolize the city. Tehran has a lot of tourist attractions. The Peacock Throne of the Persian Shahs (kings) can be found in Golestan Palace. Some well-known museums are National Museum of Iran, Sa'dabad Palaces Complex, Glassware and Ceramics Museum of Iran, the Carpet Museum of Iran, Tehran's Under-Glass Painting Museum, Niavaran Palace Complex, and Safir Office Machines Museum. The Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art features works of famous artists such as Van Gogh, Pablo Picasso and Andy Warhol. The collection of these paintings were selected by former Empress Farah Diba. Tehran is also home to the Iranian Imperial Crown Jewels, also called the Imperial Crown Jewels of Persia, claimed to be the largest, most dazzling and valuable jewel collection in the world. The collection comprises a set of crowns and thrones, some 30 tiaras, numerous aigrettes, jewel-studded swords and shields, a vast amount of precious loose gems, including the largest collections of emeralds, rubies and diamonds in the world. It also includes other items collected by the Shahs of Iran during the 2,500 year existence of the Iranian Kingdom. The Imperial Crown Jewels are still on display in the Iranian Central Bank in Tehran.

Tehran has a wide range of shopping sites, from traditional bazaars to shopping districts and modern shopping malls. The great Bazaar of Tehran and the Tajrish Bazaar are the biggest traditional bazaars in Tehran. Shopping districts such as Valiasr, Shariati, Mirdamad have a wide range of different shops. Big malls like Tiraje, Hyperstar, and smaller shopping centers like Tandis, Golestan, and Safavie are popular among Tehran's population and visitors.

Source: http://www.aparat.com/iaeste.

Iran's Calendar

  1. Week Days:
  2. In the Iranian calendar, every week begins on Saturday and ends on Friday. The names of the days of the weeks are as follows: Shanbe(h) (natively pronounced as [shambe]), Yekshanbe(h), Doshanbe(h), Seshanbe(h), Chaharshanbe(h), Panjshanbe(h) and Jom'e(h) (yek, do, se, chahar, and panj are the Persian words for the numbers one through five). The name for Friday, Jom'e, is Arabic. Jom'e is sometimes referred to by the native Persians as adineh. In most Islamic countries, Friday is the weekly holiday.

  3. Iranian Month Names:
  4. The first day of the calendar year is also the day of the greatest festival of the year in Iran, Afghanistan and surrounding regions, called Nowruz (two morphemes: now (new) and ruz (day), meaning "new day"). The celebration is filled with many festivities and runs a course of 13 days. The last day of Nowruz is called sizdah bedar (literally meaning "13 (days) outdoors"). The names of the months of the year are as follows: Farvardin, Ordibehesht, Khordad, Tir, Mordad, Shahrivar, Mehr, Aban, Azar, Day, Bahman, Isfand.

  5. Important Holidays in Iranian Calendar:
    • Tasua (9 Moharram AH)
    • Ashura (10 Moharram, 20 September 2018) The anniversary of the martyrdom of Hossein, the third Shiite imam, in battle at Karbala in October AD 680. This is celebrated with religious theatre and sombre parades.
    • Arbaeen (20 Safar, 10 November 2018) The 40th day after Ashura.
    • Martyrdom of the Prophet Mohammed (28 Safar, 19 November 2018)
    • Martyrdom of Imam Reza (30 Safar, 9 November 2018)
    • Birth of the Prophet Mohammed (17 Rabi'-ol-Avval, 20 November 2018)
    • Martyrdom of Fatima (3 Jamadi-l-Okhra, 19 February 2018) Fatima was the daughter of Prophet Mohammed.
    • Birth of Imam Ali (13 Rajab, 30 March 2018)
    • Ascension of Holy Prophet (27 Rajab, 13 April 2018) Maabath.
    • Birthday of Imam Mahdi (15 Shaban, 1 May 2018)
    • Martyrdom of Imam Ali (21 Ramazan, 5 June 2018)
    • Eid al-Fitr (1 Shavval, 15 June 2018) The Festival of the Breaking of the Fast that marks the end of Ramazan. After sunset on the last day of Ramazan large meals are consumed across the country.
    • Martyrdom of Imam Jafar Sadegh (25 Shavval, 9 July 2018)
    • Eid-e Ghorban (10 Zu-l-Hejjeh, 22 August 2018) Marks the day when Abraham offered to sacrifice his son. Expect to see plenty of sheep being butchered.
    • Qadir-e Khom (Eid-al-Ghadir; 18 Zu-l-Hejjeh, 30 August 2018) The day Prophet Mohammed appointed Imam Ali as his successor while returning to Mecca.
    • Magnificent Victory of the Islamic Revolution of Iran (11 February, 22 Bahman) The anniversary of Khomeini's coming to power in 1979.
    • Oil Nationalisation Day (20 March, 29 Esfand) Commemorates the 1951 nationalisation of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company.
    • Nowruz (21–24 March, 1–4 Farvardin) Iranian New Year.
    • Islamic Republic Day (1 April, 12 Farvardin) The anniversary of the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran in 1979.
    • Sizdah be Dar (2 April, 13 Farvardin) ‘Nature Day' is the 13th day of the Iranian New Year, when Iranians traditionally leave their houses for the day.
    • Heart-Rending Departure of the Great Leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran (4 June, 14 Khordad) Commemorates the death of Ayatollah Khomeini in 1989. About 500,000 Iranians flock to Tehran, Qom (where he trained and lived) and the village of Khomein (where he was born).
    • Anniversary of the Arrest of Ayatollah Khomeini (5 June, 15 Khordad) In 1963 Khomeini was arrested after urging Muslims of the world to rise up against the superpowers.

Population and Religion

Iran ended 2013 with a population of 77,447,168 people. Iran shows a moderate population density, with 44 people per square km and it is in the 59th position in the ranking of density population in 2013. Studies project that Iran's rate of population growth will continue to slow down until it stabilizes above 100 million by 2050. More than half of Iran's population is under 35 years old (2012) and more than 99% of the Iranians are Muslims; Less than 1% non-Muslim minorities include Christians, Zoroastrians and Jews. In addition to its international migration pattern, Iran also exhibits one of the steepest urban growth rates in the world, according to the UN humanitarian information unit. Three most populous cities in the country are Tehran, Mashhad and Isfahan. Tehran is Iran's largest city and urban area, and the largest city in Western Asia With a population of around 8.3 million and surpassing 14 million in the wider metropolitan area. Tehran is ranked 29th in the world for its population.

Iran's Language

It is home to diverse ethnic and linguistic groups from all over the country. The majority of the inhabitants of Tehran are Persian speakers. Although Persian is the city's native tongue, there are large populations of Azarbaijanis (Azeri/Turk), Kurds (Kord), Lurs (Lor) and Northern Iranians (Shomali).

Transportation System

According to a report by Tehran Municipality's Environment and Sustainable Development Office, Tehran has capacity almost for 700,000 cars but currently more than 3 million cars are on the roads. The automation industry has recently developed but international sanctions influence the production processes periodically. Tehran is served by two main airports. Mehrabad Airport, is used for domestic and charter flights. This airport is located in the western part of the city. Imam Khomeini International Airport (IKIA), located 50 kilometres (31 miles) south of the city, handles all international flights. Tehran claims to have one of the cleanest and most convenient metro systems, in terms of accessibility to different parts of the city, in the region. The feasibility study and conceptual planning of the construction were started in the 1970s. In 2001, the first two of the eight projected metro lines were opened. Currently, Tehran's metro has seven operative lines with another line under construction. Tehran also has a central railway station with connecting services round the clock to various cities in the country. A Tehran-Europe train line is also running. Tehran's transport system also includes conventional buses, trolleybuses and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT). The metropolis of Tehran enjoys a huge network of highways and of interchanges, ramps, and loops. Apart from Google's and other maps, there is a concise map available in Tehran Municipality's website which will help you how to move through the city.

Outstanding HE Institutes in Tehran

    Tehran is the largest and most important educational centres in Iran. Today there are a total of nearly 50 major colleges and universities in Greater Tehran. Tehran's major colleges and universities in alphabetic order are:
  • Allameh Tabataba'i University (ATU)
  • Alzahra University (AU)
  • Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic)
  • Baqir al-Olum University
  • Imam Ali Officers' Academy
  • Imam Hossein University (IHU)
  • Imam Sadiq University (ISU)
  • Institute for Management and Planning Studies (IMPS)
  • Institute for Research in fundamental sciences
  • Imam Khomeini International University
  • Iran Tele-Communication Research Centre
  • Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute (IPPI)
  • Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS)
  • Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST)
  • Islamic Azad University
  • Khajeh Nasir Toosi University of Technology (KNTU)
  • Malek-Ashtar University of Technology (MUT)
  • Tehran Medical University for the Islamic Republic of Iran's Army
  • Amin Police University
  • Payame Noor University (PNU)
  • Power and Water University of Technology(PWIT)
  • School of International Relations (SIR)
  • Shahed University
  • Shahid Beheshti University (SBU)
  • Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBUMS)
  • Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University
  • Sattari Aerial University
  • Sharif University of Technology
  • Tarbiat Modares University (TMU)
  • Tehran College of Environment
  • Tehran University of Applied Science and Technology
  • Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS)
  • The Research Institute of The Petroleum Industry
  • Imam Reza International University
  • Tehran University of Art
  • University of Science and Culture (Elm-o Farhang)
  • University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences
  • University of Tehran (UT)


  • http://www.lonelyplanet.com/iran/public-holidays
  • http://en.mfa.ir/index.aspx?fkeyid=&siteid=3&fkeyid=&siteid=3&fkeyid=&siteid=2&pageid=2140
  • http://www.aparat.com/iaeste